Comparison of symptoms and RNA levels in children and adults With SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community setting

Chung E, Chow EJ, Wilcox NC, Burstein R, Brandstetter E, Han PD, Fay K, Pfau B, Adler A, Lacombe K, Lockwood CM, Uyeki TM, Shendure J, Duchin JS, Rieder MJ, Nickerson DA, Boeckh M, Famulare M, Hughes JP, Starita LM, Bedford T, Englund JA, Chu HY. 2021. JAMA Pediatr: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.2025.

Abstract

Importance: The association between COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 viral levels in children living in the community is not well understood.

Objective: To characterize symptoms of pediatric COVID-19 in the community and analyze the association between symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels, as approximated by cycle threshold (Ct) values, in children and adults.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used a respiratory virus surveillance platform in persons of all ages to detect community COVID-19 cases from March 23 to November 9, 2020. A population-based convenience sample of children younger than 18 years and adults in King County, Washington, who enrolled online for home self-collection of upper respiratory samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing were included.

Exposures: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from participant-collected samples.

Main Outcomes and Measures: RT-PCR–confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with Ct values stratified by age and symptoms.

Results: Among 555 SARS-CoV-2–positive participants (mean [SD] age, 33.7 [20.1] years; 320 were female [57.7%]), 47 of 123 children (38.2%) were asymptomatic compared with 31 of 432 adults (7.2%). When symptomatic, fewer symptoms were reported in children compared with adults (mean [SD], 1.6 [2.0] vs 4.5 [3.1]). Symptomatic individuals had lower Ct values (which corresponded to higher viral RNA levels) than asymptomatic individuals (adjusted estimate for children, −3.0; 95% CI, −5.5 to −0.6; P = .02; adjusted estimate for adults, −2.9; 95% CI, −5.2 to −0.6; P = .01). The difference in mean Ct values was neither statistically significant between symptomatic children and symptomatic adults (adjusted estimate, −0.7; 95% CI, −2.2 to 0.9; P = .41) nor between asymptomatic children and asymptomatic adults (adjusted estimate, −0.6; 95% CI, −4.0 to 2.8; P = .74).

Conclusions and Relevance: In this community-based cross-sectional study, SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels, as determined by Ct values, were significantly higher in symptomatic individuals than in asymptomatic individuals and no significant age-related differences were found. Further research is needed to understand the role of SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels and viral transmission.